By Shubham Diwate
Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-citizen (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) , government-to-employees (G2E) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework. Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and businesses/interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries.
Electronic Governance is the application of Information Technology to the functioning of an organisation in order to bring about Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent (SMART) Governance. It is a process requiring provision of hardware, software, networking and re-engineering of the procedures for better delivery of services. The model of e-governance is adopted to obtain rapid information flow, enhanced efficiency of business activities, greater stakeholder satisfaction, more accountability and transparent corporate administration and management. E-Governance in India has steadily evolved from computerization of Government Departments to adoption of the Electronic Governance in the corporate world. Government initiatives through e-governance include citizen centricity, policy changes, service orientation and transparency. Corporate world adopts e-governance in all its business-related and administrative activities. All kinds of managerial functions becomes more convenient, efficient, transparent, this certainly leads to better accountability and responsibility
E-Government is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector organisations. Some definitions restrict e–government to Internet-enabled applications only, or only to interactions between government and outside groups.
There are advantages while implementing an electronic government. The main advantage of an electronic government this will be to improve the efficiency of the current system. That would in return save money and time. The introduction would also facilitate better communications between governments and businesses.
Role of E-Governance in Good Corporate Governance:
The use of information technology in corporate governance leads to enhanced efficiency, greater transparency and cost reduction. With the help of e-governance, services can be delivered at greater speed and the interests of all stake-holders can be better protected.
E-Governance signifies the shift in the manner of interaction between the Government and those who are governed. It aims for improving efficiency and effectiveness of Governance by making the information available anywhere and anytime.
In order to ensure good corporate governance, it is necessary to ensure information integrity and prevent abuse/misuse use of information by those involved in the internal or external governance system of the companies. In this context, the use of information technology (IT) can be viewed as a real support.
Good corporate governance has five essential elements: fairness, transparency, accountability, responsibility, and independence. It is important that the companies’ disclosures are timely, adequately, clearly, accurately and comparably, and it should be easy for the stakeholders to access. Keeping these in view, supporting tools for providing this information particularly in decision-making is obviously needed. Therefore, e-governance becomes one of the major factors to improve the good corporate governance and its controlling mechanisms.
Types of E-Governance
- Government -to-citizen (G2C): It is the online non- commercial interaction between local and central government with private individuals. Public can get services such as license, death/birth/marriage certificates etc. by the government.
- Government-to-business (G2B): It includes dissemination of policies, memos, rules and regulations.
- Government -to employee (G2E): It is the online non- commercial interaction between government organizations and government employees. It includes provision of human resource training and development.
- Government-to-Government (G2G): It is the online non- commercial interaction between government organizations, departments and authorities and other government organizations, departments and authorities. This service can be used as instrument of international relations and diplomacy.
E-Government and e-governance can be defined as two very distinct terms. E-Governance is a broader topic that deals with the whole spectrum of the relationship and networks within government regarding the usage and application of ICTs.
E-Government is actually a narrower discipline dealing with the development of online services to the citizen, more the e on any particular government service – such as e-tax, e-transportation or e-health.
Business-IT alignment is a dynamic state in which a business organization is able to use information technology (IT) to achieve business objectives – typically improved financial performance or marketplace competitiveness. Some definitions focus more on outcomes (the ability of IT to produce business value) than means (the harmony between IT and business decision-makers within the organizations)
Our students learn the necessary information technology (IT) and computing skills, plus quantitative and modeling techniques, to develop and implement sophisticated business-related computer systems. The degree program especially focuses on the practical application of computing to business problem solving.
Resource Management and Globalisation- Resource management plays a crucial role in business success. These resources may include tangible, financial or human resources etc. Information technology has played a vital role in automating such complex problems by introducing user friendly solutions.
Information technology, also known as IT, is a comprehensive term that includes all types of technology used to exchange, store and use or create information. Commonly used information technology equipment includes computers, servers, peripheral devices and Internet connectivity equipment and phone systems.
Uses of IT in Business
Information technology is used in virtually every aspect of business as of October 2010. Even the smallest businesses use computers for producing letters and invoices and for keeping records, but IT is also utilized for technical design, research, data analysis and strategic planning, ordering goods and making payments and communications.
Computers save a great deal of time for businesses. Information can be relayed instantly; video conferencing cuts down the need to travel to business meetings and documents can be amended and edited very quickly. They also cut costs, since firms can reduce staffing levels and produce their own marketing materials. An innovation as of October 2010 is the use of social networking sites for business marketing.
The most obvious drawbacks are the risk of having confidential information stolen by hackers, and viral computer infections. There is a loss of social interaction, both internally and with clients, as business is conducted long-distance rather than face-to-face. Workers are also being faced with information overload from emails and “spam.”